1. What can I do in case I find an animal in a road accident?

In such a situation, approach the animal if only he/sheappears to be calm and friendly. Then very carefully inspect the animal’s body for wounds and possible fractures. If the animal is badly injured, call a vet or contact an animal protection organisation immediately. If the wound is minor and you can locate the resources, try giving a first aid (Refer to Q.2)

2. How do I stop incessant bleeding after an accident?

Basic medical care can be provided to the animal at the scene of the accident. But, injured animals must be approached carefully, and one should first take precautions for their own safety because any animal that is injured or in pain may bite or scratch. Using a muzzle is often a prudent safety measure; one can be easily made from a piece of cloth or a ready-made muzzle can be included in the animal first aid kit. Placing a light towel or cloth over the animal’s head can decrease his/her awareness of nearby activity or noises that may cause fearful and aggressive reactions. Incessant bleeding can be stopped by pressing down firmly on the bleeding area with fingers or the palm of the hand, and then firm, but not tight, bandage should be applied. Any long pieces of fabric or gauze can be used to bandage the animal. If the original bandage becomes soaked with blood, then it shouldn’t be removed and additional material should be applied on top of the previous one and pressure should be applied. And the animal should be rushed to the nearby veterinary hospital or a vet should be immediately called in.

3. There is an unconscious dog on the road, how can I help him?

In such a situation, shift the dog to the corner of the road and check for the reason for the unconsciousness. Check for some wound/injury. See if the wounds are deep or else try giving a first aid (Refer to Q.2). Call the vet immediately. Try feeding the dog with some water or milk. Dissolve a painkiller in the milk in order to lessen the suffering. If there is no wound, try feeding the dog and wait for the vet to come.

4. What can I do if there is blood in my dogs’ vomit?

Consult the dog’s veterinarian as soon as possible. This condition could be because of bleeding from the intestinal tract and can be life-threatening, depending on the rate of blood loss and the underlying cause. Severe blood loss from vomiting or diarrhoea can lead to serious problems with the other organs and can ultimately lead to death.

5. What does an animal first aid kit contain?

The contents of an animal (dog) first aid kit are:
I. Important phone numbers
• Veterinary clinic phone number and directions to the clinic
• Emergency clinic phone number and directions
• Poison control centre phone numbers

II. Equipment and Supplies
• Muzzle
• Magnifying glass
• Scissor
• Tweezers
• Nail Clippers
• Penlight
• Nylon slip leash
• Eye dropper or oral syringe
• Cotton balls
• Clean towels – cloth and paper
• Rectal thermometer
• Petroleum Jelly
• Disposable gloves
• Blanket
• Cold packs and heat packs

III. Bandaging Material
• Square gauze of various sizes
• First aid tape
• Bandage rolls

IV. Nutritional Support
• Rehydrating solution
• High sugar source

V. Medicines
• Disinfectants
• Triple antibiotic ointment for skin
• Eye wash solution
• Activated charcoal to absorb ingested poisons
• Anti-diarrheal medicine

6. What are the symptoms of a bacterial infection?

Usually the body of an animal is able to clear small numbers of bacteria quickly because of which temporary bacteraemia rarely causes signs. When sepsis does develop, signs include
• Shaking,
• Fever,
• Weakness,
• Confusion,
• Lack of interest in food,
• Vomiting, and
• Diarrhoea.
• A sudden high fever in an animal that has an infection may indicate towards bacterial infection too.

7. How do I treat a bacterial infection?
Contact a vet. Depending on the type of bacterial infection, and the animal’s overall health the vet may recommend various treatment options to clear the infection. Medications usually include a course of antibiotics and anti-inflammatories in the form of drops or topical ointments but these can only be prescribed by a qualified vet. In the case of bacterial skin infections, allergy shots and certain shampoos may be prescribed to relieve symptoms. Making certain dietary changes and including regular exercise as part of the animal’s daily routine can also strengthen the immune system and ward off infection.

8. How do I treat a fungal infection?

Fungal infections usually occur due to an overgrowth of yeast caused by fungal infection. If a yeast infection is not treated, a dog can develop more health problems. Apple, vinegar and yogurt are inexpensive and easy cures easy to administer at home. They retard the growth of bad bacteria. Yogurt with lactobacillus acidophilus is a type of probiotic that will give your dog’s body good bacteria.

9. What are common allergies that animals have?
In cats, the most common allergy is the Atopic Dermatitis. It is usually caused by breathing pollens and house dust. The symptoms usually include itching on head and neck. Animals can get allergic to the food they eat, insect bites, and parasites.

10. How do I treat a dog with Mange?

Mange is known as a skin disease which is caused by several species of tiny mites, common external parasites and is found in companion canines. Even though the infection is widespread, dogs who are less than a year old have a chance of clearing the infection because their immune systems are very strong and they do not necessarily need medical treatment. For dogs that do not spontaneously clear an infection use either (1) Scabneel Oleo mixed with equal amount of neem oil (2) Sulphur powder & camphor powder (equal amounts) mixed with coconut oil. Apply either of these ointments only once every 4 or 5 days or even once a week.

11. What can I immediately do to alleviate the pain of a fracture?

To alleviate the pain of a fracture the posture of the animal is to be kept in mind and also contact a vet immediately who can prescribe pain-alleviating medication to ease the pain.

12. A dog just is showing an allergic reaction to an insect bite/ plant/ food, what should I do?

Insect bites and stings are fairly common on dogs. The most common signs of an insect bite are redness and swelling at the site of the bite. If the dog has been bitten by a bee or any other flying insects and if the stinger is visible, remove it with tweezers and apply an ointment. Insects like ticks not only can cause swelling at the site, but can carry diseases. One should exercise great care while removing a tick. Using a spray on the ticks directly and letting the tick die before removal is beneficial. After which tweezers or a tick scoop can be used to grasp the tick by the head and pull straight up. But, one should be careful while removing the tick out as it should be pulled out by its body or else it may release bacteria into the blood.
Dogs that suffer from flea allergies can be treated by using a flea comb.

Dogs can also develop allergies to chicken, milk, eggs, fish, beef, pork, horse meat, grains, potatoes, soy products, or dietary additives. The diagnosis is made by placing the dog on a hypoallergenic test diet and watching for a definite reduction in itching and scratching. A hypoallergenic diet is one that has a very limited number of ingredients. It should contain no added colouring, preservatives, or flavourings. Most importantly, it should contain ingredients that the dog is unlikely to have encountered in the past. Your veterinarian can prescribe an appropriate hypoallergenic diet after carefully reviewing the composition of the dog’s current diet. Switching from one commercial food to another is not an adequate test, as these non-prescription diets contain too many ingredients and the dog is likely to have eaten some of them in the past.

13. How do I deal with a cut on a dog’s body?

The very first step is to determine how deep the cut is. If the cut is small and superficial then one must treat it by gently cleaning the wound and applying an ointment two to three times a day until the wound has completely healed. If the cut is deep, one must place a bandage or cloth over the wound to control bleeding, keep the area clean and seek veterinary care as soon as possible as deep cuts can become infected leading to more serious complications. Usually for deep cuts the veterinarian would clip and clean around the area and close the cut with stitches. The vet may also prescribe a course of antibiotics in the case of deep cuts.

14. How do I deal with a burn wound on a dog?

Burns are primarily caused by one of three things: chemicals, electricity, or heat from liquids or hot objects.
• Burns from liquids or hot objects

The first and foremost thing to do is to restrict the dog and cool the burnt area as soon as possible to avoid causing any further damage. This can be done using a gentle stream of cold water in the bath or from a shower attachment. Once the affected area has been cooled down, a cold compress should be applied for 15-20 minutes and then the area should be covered with a non-stick bandage. For further treatment, the vet of the dog should be consulted.

• Chemical burns

Rubber gloves should be worn in order to avoid personal damage in this case. All the contaminated objects, like, collars, clothes, harness etc should be carefully removed. The affected area should be flushed with cold water for 15- 20 minutes, making sure that chemicals aren’t spread and burn other areas. If the burn is in the mouth of the dog, the dog should be made to lie on his side and cool water should be poured through the mouth. Once flushed with water, superficial burns with a non-stick bandage and for further treatment the vet should be consulted.

• Electrical burns

Such type of burns can be treated in the same way as burns from hot liquids. However, it should be seen that9 before touching the dog or surrounding cables, make sure the electricity is turned off and unplug the equipment.

For second-degree and third-degree burns of any kind, where the skin is either partially or fully burned through, the following guidelines are to be followed:

• Check for signs of shock and treat them as a priority.
• Apply a clean, dry dressing to the burned area. Be careful to avoid using loose-fibered textiles such as cotton — the threads will stick to the wound and cause more problems.
• Wrap the dressed area with clean, torn sheets and take the dog to the vet immediately.
In addition to treating the burns, the doctors must prevent the dog from going into shock.

15. Two dogs fought and now both have open wounds, what can I do?

In such a situation, firstly separate the two dogs and keep them at different places. Inspect the wound. If the wound is deep call the vet immediately and if the wound is not so deep, and the dogs appear friendly clean it with cotton and antiseptic solution, apply betadine and bandage the wound (if necessary) and call the vet.

16. A dog is choking, how do I help him?

The sudden onset of forceful coughing, pawing at the mouth, and respiratory distress in a healthy dog are the common symptoms of choking and this suggest a foreign body caught in the voice box of the animal. If the dog is conscious and able to breathe, take him/her to the nearest veterinary clinic and if not then assume that a foreign particle is stuck in its mouth or back of the throat.
If the dog collapses and is unable to breathe, follow the following steps:
• Place him on its side with its head down. Open his mouth, pull out its tongue as far as you can, sweep your fingers from side to side, grasp the object, and remove it. Then administer artificial respiration or if necessary.
If the object cannot be easily removed, follow the following the steps:
• Hold the dog upside down in your lap, with its back against your chest and its head highest, but facing down. Place your arms around the dog’s waist from behind. Make a fist and grasp it with the other hand. Place your fist or fingers in the dog’s upper mid-abdomen close to the breast bone at the apex of the V formed by the rib cage then, compress the abdomen by forcefully thrusting up and in with the fist. This will push the diaphragm upward and force a burst of air through its larynx and dislodge the object.
• After this, pull out the tongue and sweep the mouth and remove the object.
• Once the object is out, check for breathing and heart rate and when the dog revives, take it to the veterinary hospital for further treatment.